Saturday, November 19, 2016

1680 - Governor Andros in Turmoil

East and West New Jersey (1680)
January 5, 1680 – French explorer Cavelier de La Salle reaches with his men the Illinois village of Pimiteoui (present day Peoria).
René Robert Cavelier de la Salle

He tried to convince the Indians of the interest to build a fort and equip a boat to explore the Mississippi but these feared that he was actually allied to Iroquois. They then wanted  to divert him from his project by describing all the dangers that threatened him. Panicked, six of his companions preferred to give up.
La Salle was not to be impressed by the picture painted by the Indians and began from January 15 the building of the fort he had planned that he called Crevecoeur in reference to his recent troubles.

Sir George Carteret
January 14, 1680 - George Carteret dies in London at age 70.

He had seen his loyalty to the Royal cause rewarded with the title of Proprietor of Carolina and New Jersey, alongside John Berkeley. He was especially credited with publishing in 1665 the Concessions and Agreements that sealed somehow the basis of the religious freedom in the new colony of New Jersey.
His friendship with King Charles II had allowed him to enjoy some autonomy in the administration of New Jersey, despite the ambition of Edmund Andros, the governor of New York. But his death was soon to weaken the position of his nephew Philip Carteret, the governor of East Jersey, facing the new designs of the Duke of York.

Lady Elizabeth, the widow of George Carteret had to sell her shares in the colony to a group of twelve investors. New Jersey was then shared by many owners and aroused envy of New York, its powerful and dangerous neighbor which expected to benefit from its rivalries, including the division of its territory in two parts, one east of the Delaware, ruled by his nephew Philip Carteret with its capital in Perth Amboy and the other on the West whose capital was Burlington.

January 21, 1680 - John Cutt becomes the first president of the royal colony of New Hampshire.

John Cutt (- 1681) – Welsh-born, he arrived in New England in 1646 and settled in the small town of Portsmouth where he had made a fortune in trading and flour-milling. He however fell ill shortly after his appointment as President of New Hampshire.

February, 1680 -Captain Henry Wilkinson is appointed governor of Albemarle by the Lords Proprietors. Personal problems preventing him from sailing to the colony, this appointment will remain ineffective.

February 29, 1680 - Cavelier de La Salle sends Jesuit father Louis Hennepin and two of his companions to recognize the Upper Mississippi region while he embarks on his side in search of the Griffon whose some facilities are sorely lacking to finish the boats he planned for the exploration of the river.

March 18, 1680 - John Cranston, the governor of Rhode Island, dies in Newport at age 54.

Edmund Andros (1637-1714)
Governor of New York
March, 1680 - Governor of New York Edmund Andros claims the rights of the Duke of York on New Jersey and prohibits Philip Carteret and his officers from exercising any authority over the king’s subjects. He also claims the right to make build a fort on coastal New Jersey and to fit lighthouses out, pretending that these works will benefit the subjects of His Majesty.

The Duke of York had assigned New Jersey to George Carteret in 1664 but his cousin Philip replied in a measured way to this ultimatum that, after fifteen years of existence, he did not conceive his authority on this province to be questioned and that he wished, for his part, to refer to the king while stating that he would not hesitate to meet force with force.

Except the new interest of the duke of York to New Jersey, Andros thought, meanwhile, to have the support of many of its inhabitants, for years opposed to the party of the Proprietors pampered by Carteret.
Andros also knew that he had to find a solution to the threat that could represent for New York the port of Elizabethtown, in so far as it was subject to no customs duty.

March 16, 1680 - Peleg Sanford is elected governor of Rhode Island.

Peleg Sanford (Portsmouth,1639 – Portsmouth,1701) - He was one of the ten children of John Sanford, an emigrant from England in 1631 who appeared among the supporters of Anne Hutchinson. He had taken part with her in the founding of Portsmouth in 1638. Peleg married in 1674, Mary Coddington, the daughter of former governor William Coddington, died two years earlier.

April, 1680 - In South Carolina, English traders and slave traders become allied to the Savannah Indians to destroy the Westo tribe.

April 15, 1680 - The men supposed to hold down Fort Crevecœur during the absence of Henry de Tonti seize all its provisions and ammunition before plundering it. Most of them run away to Canada.

Fort Crevecœur had been built one year earlier on the shores of the Illinois River by Cavelier De La Salle to serve as starting point for expeditions to the Mississippi. Alerted, Tonti sent a message to Cavelier de La Salle informing him of the misdeed. Until the fort was restored, all that could be recovered was transported to the village of Kaskaskia.

April 21, 1680 - Cavelier de La Salle is back on Niagara, after traveling 250 miles on foot, in particularly harsh weather conditions. He found no trace of the Griffon, and ironically, he learnt that a ship coming from France with on board more than FF 20 000 of goods intended for him, sank in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

April 25, 1680 - The General Assembly of Virginia meets in Jamestown, barely rebuilt after being burned during Bacon's Rebellion.

April 30, 1680 - Thomas Ashe and a group of 45 French Protestant refugees land in Carolina from the Richmond.

They had left England in December aboard the frigate Richmond. Thomas Ashe had been sent by the British Crown to draw up an inventory of the colony and explore new development opportunities. As for the French Protestants, this destination revived the memory of their attempt to settle in the area in 1562 when, under the reign of King Charles IX (who incidentally gave his name to Carolina), Jean Ribault and 250 Huguenot colonists had initially landed in Florida near present day Jacksonville before moving to Parris Island, South Carolina, where they were soon targeted by the Spanish soldiery under the new governor of St Augustine Pedro Menendez de Aviles whose orders were to chase away all those who might harm the interests of Spain. The latter had easily seized the French small fort, making execute all the men and enslaving the women and children. A hundred years later, at a moment when Spain had lost its luster, setting foot in South Carolina again was a revenge for the French Protestant community.
The moving of these new colonists to Carolina was backed by the Crown of England which planned to take advantage of the experience of the French to promote vine and olive tree growing as well as silkworm rearing.

April 30, 1680 - Governor of East Jersey Philip Carteret is arrested on order of Edmund Andros and brought to New York to be tried.

This arrest which took place in the night was, according to testimony, particularly tumultuous. Carteret was dragged naked from his bed and pushed through the window of his room before being thrashed. Andros had certainly, to his advantage, to have to played the surprise but he should now demonstrate before the 5000 inhabitants of the province that Philip Carteret had no right on East Jersey and that he usurped governor's title. The party pledged was not yet won.

Thomas Lord Culpeper
Governor of Virginia
May 3rd, 1680 - Baron Thomas Culpeper, appointed governor of Virginia, lands in Jamestown with instructions to put the colony and its General Assembly back under the royal authority.

These provisions were clearly intended to put an end to the party of former Governor William Berkeley’s widow, Frances Culpeper who then enjoyed a real political influence and mainly sought to keep distance with London.
Upon his arrival, Culpeper approved Robert Beverley's appointment at the post of clerk of the court of the Assembly of Virginia, despite the disavowal previously formulated by king Charles II. Beverley took advantage of it to pass a law requiring all goods to transit through a port having a warehouse. He reserved otherwise the right to seize the tobacco in his profit. This law was quickly cancelled.

Robert Beverley (1641-1687) - Little known until he was appointed clerk of the House of Burgesses in 1677, he was especially one of Governor William Berkeley's more faithful supporters. Arrived in Virginia by 1663 from Yorkshire, he had devoted himself to tobacco growing but had especially been famous by occupying several official duties in Middlesex County where he became attorney general in 1676 and major at the time of Bacon’s Rebellion.

May, 1680 - Josiah Winslow is reelected governor of Plymouth.

It was during this term that was founded the city of Bristol, close to Mount Hope, the former residence of King Philip.

May, 1680 - the General Court of Massachusetts consists for the first time of 18 assistants, as requested by King Charles II.

The implementation of this arrangement does not however prevent it to send a letter to London intended to bias it acts independently.

May 6, 1680 - Cavelier de La Salle is back at Fort Frontenac. Despite his courage and a strong organization, accumulating setbacks led this expedition to disaster.

La Salle was soon to learn by messengers of the Chevalier de Tonti that Fort Crevecœur had been ransacked and abandoned by the men he had left behind. On their way back, they took it upon themselves to plunder the positions where his goods were.

May, 1680 - Maurice Matthews, a settler living in Charleston, South Carolina considers that the city has about 1000 inhabitants. The Lords Proprietors ask however governor Joseph West to found a new city at Oyster Point, on the peninsula across the Ashley River.

Matthews left a particularly enthusiastic description of the urban plan according to which the city had been designed. He described on the other hand the quality and richness of the environment, wondering in particular at the quantity of visible fireflies at night.
Anxious to reduce the power of people come from Barbados, behind the founding of Charleston, the Proprietors did not spare their efforts to attract new migrants, insisting on the climate benefits on health and the guarantee to lead a prosperous life. In fact, the situation was not also idyllic. The prospective immigrants arrived often exhausted by the length of the journey and many fell ill, especially as the hot and wet climate was very different from what they were used. Most were quickly subjected to severe infections and the average life expectancy did not exceed 40 years for the white settlers.

Rev. Increase Mather
May 1680 - the synod of Boston meets in second session to acquaint with the report of the committee under Increase Mather.

It resulted from it a new doctrine called Savoy Declaration which without being imposed by the General Court of Massachusetts was printed and widely distributed in all the churches of the province. 

May 24, 1680 - the Duke of York charges John Levin to investigate in the most complete way the management of the colony of New York. He finds that incomes are too low and questions the methods of Governor Edmund Andros who is asked to go to London to provide explanations as soon as possible.

Andros had in vain tried to incur the sympathy of the native Dutch families and only succeeded, despite the years, to alienate the wealthy English merchants. According to them, the governor had never ceased favoring the Dutch merchants, without regard for the Navigation Act, diverting public funds from fees and never meeting their claims only by excluding them from public positions, overwhelming them with procedures or throwing them in jail.

June, 1680 - King Charles II ratifies a law to prevent slaves’ uprisings in Virginia.

Slaves' gatherings on the occasion of celebrations and funerals being considered dangerous, it was now forbidden to them to carry weapons and go out of the property of their masters without prior authorization under penalty of 20 lashes. Similarly, the fact for a slave to raise the hands against a Christian was punishable with 30 lashes. Finally, the one who had tried to run away and cause damages to the settlers would incur the death penalty in case of rebellion during his capture.

June 2, 1680 – After dismissing the governor of East Jersey Philip Carteret, Edmund Andros proceeds to the dissolution of the assembly of the province.

Andros had somehow self-proclaimed governor of New Jersey, a method akin to a coup that some, including in England no longer hesitated to challenge.
He had initially thought to be widely supported by the colonists, exasperated by the owners’ party backed by Carteret but had not quite measured the commitment of the people of New Jersey to their founding values. Met on June 2, the Assembly, asked him for the confirmation of the Concessions and Agreements what he fiercely opposed until dissolving it facing the intransigence of the representatives. He soon realized, however, that the settlers were not willing to accept the enforcement of the Duke’s Laws nor the authority of the Long Island Court of Assizes as supreme body of justice. On the other hand, against all odds, the jury of the Court of New York, having to rule on Philip Carteret decided to dismiss all charges against him. Edmund Andros violently opposed this judgment and exerted pressure on the jury but this one kept its position.

June, 1680 - The House of  Burgesses of Virginia passes a law to prevent slaves' revolts. These are no longer allowed to carry weapons or leave their plantation without prior authorization from their owner or master. Any unjustified absence, any damage detrimental to the inhabitants and any attempt at rebellion are now punishable by the death penalty without prior trial.

July 7, 1680 - King Charles II’s agent Edward Randolph is admitted as freeman of the Plymouth colony. He is thus recognized for his support to Governor Josiah Winslow for obtaining a charter.

James, Duke of York
August 6, 1680 - The Duke of York confirms to Edward Byllynge his rights on West Jersey.

It was nevertheless a few years since Byllynge, threatened with bankruptcy, had sold some of his rights to the directors William Penn, Gawen Lawrie and Nicholas Lucas who were handling the sale of lands necessary to cover his debts.

August 10, 1680 - Concerned about what could have happened to the Chevalier de Tonti, Cavelier de La Salle decides to return to the Illinois.

August 11, 1680 - Sir Henry Chicheley is confirmed in his position as acting governor of Virginia after Sir Thomas Culpeper left for London.

Culpeper returned to England in order to redeem the rights granted by charters to the benefit of other owners in Virginia.
The colony had, at that time, 15 000 indentured servants and 3000 slaves.

September 9, 1680 - French missionary Gabriel de La Ribourde is killed by Kickapoos while trying to flee the Iroquois.

After the Indian village where he lived on the shores of the Illinois River had been attacked a few days earlier by Iroquois, Father Gabriel had managed to escape by boat with some companions in the hope of taking refuge in Green Bay (Baie des Puants). Their boat began, however, to take on water and they soon had to land.

Gabriel de La Ribourde (1610-1680) – the only descendant of a noble family from Burgundy, he entered the Franciscans in 1640 and occupied the highest positions of his order before leaving to Canada in 1670. He then joined Cavelier De La Salle through Father Louis Hennepin and reached the mouth of the St. Joseph River in November 1679 where he built a small chapel. He then went to the Illinois where he was adopted by Chief Asapista, whom he accompanied during his summer hunts. He had just converted his first Indians when the village was attacked.

Algonquin speaking, the Kickapoos were from the Michigan area and shared a common kinship with the Sauk and Fox tribes. Iroquois pressure had forced them to settle in the 1640s in present-day Wisconsin. People of farmers and hunters organized in a system of clans, they held the dog as a sacred animal. They were known for their hostility to the "Whites".

September 30, 1680 - The inhabitants of Maine petition King Charles II to complain about abuses of Massachusetts and the heavy taxes imposed on the people of York, Welles and Kittery.

October, 1680 - Affected by the failure of his attempt to hand over East Jersey, the Duke of York has no other choice but to recall Edmund Andros to England.
Captain Anthony Brockholls, an English Catholic who commands the garrison of Albany, is called as acting governor.

James, Duke of York was going through rather a disturbed time. King Charles II, his brother, had entrusted him with a command in Scotland to remove him from London where his declared Catholicism aroused a wave of opposition from Parliamentarians, even threatening his possible accession to the throne.

This growing distrust of the duke of York also reached his American colonies and Governor Edmund Andros, because of his excessive zeal and recent clumsiness was crystallizing the discontent.
Anthony Brockholls, from his part, already knew the place, he had already been acting in 1678

November, 1680 - The act regulating New York’s customs duties on imports expires on its own. The local merchants benefit from the uncertainty caused by Governor Andros’s callback to London to refuse its renewal.

They relied on the abuses personally committed by the New York Port tax collector who had just been seized goods that had illegally been exempted customs duties. This one had been thrown into prison for high treason in the expectation of being sent back to London for trail.

November 20, 1680 - Beginning in London of John Culpeper's trial, imprisoned since last December 19.

The proceedings had taken nearly one year to complete before the trial began. Accused of treason, Culpeper had against him the testimonies of Thomas Miller and representatives of the Proprietors. His cause already seemed lost when the king requested further information after receiving a memo from Lord Shaftesbury according to which Miller had illegally seized the Albemarle government. This late revelation finally allowed Culpeper to be acquitted.

John Culpeper was allowed to return to Albemarle while being kept out of public responsibilities. He died there between 1691 and 1694.
Although the rebellion of the Albemarle settlers bears his name, John Culpeper never had the decisive role traditionally attributed to him. George Durant was actually the real instigator of the movement. But it is obvious, on the other hand, that because of the close ties between him and the governor of Virginia William Berkeley, the name of Culpeper had, in many respects, some legitimacy.

December 1st, 1680 - Cavelier de La Salle finally arrives at the Illinois village of Pimiteoui where he discovers a scene of desolation. All the inhabitants were massacred by Iroquois and their bodies horribly mutilated. He searches the ruins of Fort Crevecoeur, burnt by the Indians, but finds no trace of Tonti. He then decides to descend the Illinois River towards the Mississippi where he discovers the remains of other slaughters before preferring to turn back.

December 23, 1680 - Governor Josiah Winslow dies in Plymouth at age 51. He is replaced by Thomas Hinckley.

The fact that Josiah Winslow was the first colonial governor born on the American soil certainly made him realize that he was not a migrant but rather a native. He came to consider Wampanoag no longer as hosts but as cumbersome neighbors. As Commander-in-chief of the armies of the colonies of New England, he showed an unusual toughnes towards them and certainly contributed, by his intransigence and hostility to any negotiation that King Philip’s War ends with a human disaster.
He then never ceased wanting to eliminate the last survivors of the former Indian nations of the region but, on the other hand, did not receive any glory. Isolated and struck by the early loss of two of his children, he failed to govern as a patriarch, as his predecessors had done and died relatively young at age 51, certainly haunted by the ghosts of Massasoit and his family.

Thomas Hinckley (1618-1706) - Born in England, he landed at Scituate with his parents in 1635. He settled four years later at Barnstable where he became deputy in 1645 and held therefore several responsibilities in the government of the colony. Married in 1641 to Mary Richard, then to Mary Glover in 1659, he had not less than seventeen children and now ranks among the ancestors of Presidents George H Bush, George W Bush and Barack Obama.