Sunday, November 23, 2014

1632 - Birth of Maryland

March 1632 - William Bradford is reelected governor of Plymouth for a 10th one-year term. The colony boasts the establishment of a new settlement at Duxbury, on the other side of the bay.

March 19, 1632 – A group of puritan Lords and Gentlemen further named the “Saybrook Group” including  William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Say & Sele and Robert Grenville, 2nd Baron Brook is granted by Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick acting as President of the Council for New England, a land at the Connecticut River’s mouth to establish a colony.

April, 1632Narraganset warriors attempt to seize Chief Massasoit, but he succeeds to escape and takes refuge at Sowanset, a trading post held by the English. Faced with rumors of an Indian attack, Myles Standish gathers his forces in Plymouth and requests help from the Massaschusetts Bay Colony.

There would be actually no face-off, Chief Canonicus’s army having scattered along the way.
The Narragansett tried at the time to reassert their authority faced with Wampanoag but the latter could count on the English support. That is why Canonicus had other alternative but to expand his alliances. He proposed Massachusetts leaders Sagamore John and Chikatabot to get along with them and they answered his call sending about fifty warriors to Narragansett land. Plymouth authorities succeeded, however, in the meantime, to negotiate a peace treaty between the two nations. The Narragansett then turned against the Pequot, but despite Sagamore John and Chikatabaut’s backup,  the enemy proved too strong and the military campaign was cut short. The Massachusett
 who lived in the Boston area were about 3,000 in 1614 but their population fell to about 500 in 1632.

May 1, 1632 - At Boston, Thomas Dudley, chosen as deputy governor alongside John Winthrop announces to resign his position, being  disappointed by his methods. His resignation is however refused.

As a result, it was decided that "free men" of the colony would now not only invited to elect their government but also vote for the governor  and the deputy governor for an extendable one-year term. This democratization of the political process would actually serve Winthrop over the years to come.

8 May 1632John Winthrop is elected governor of the colony of Massachusetts.

The boundaries of Maryland in 1632
20 June 1632 - Establishment of the Province of Maryland, originally granted by King Charles 1 of England to Catholic George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, allowing him the right to distribute land. Maryland obtains a Royal Charter making it the first private colony in the New World. Charles 1 gives a territory extending from the 40th parallel to the Potomac River to Cecilius Calvert whose father George, Lord Baltimore has died in London on April 15 after abandoning few years earlier to settle in Newfoundland, due to the harshness of climate.

Cecilius Calvert,  2nd Lord Baltimore (August 8, 1605 - November 30, 1675)
He attended Trinity College, Oxford University from 1621 and married in 1627 Anne Arundell, the daughter of the 1st Baron Arundell. He received the charter granted by King Charles 1 to establish the Province of Maryland, named in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria, daughter of French King Henry IV. Died two months earlier, his father, George Calvert, had for years sought to settle a colony in North Atlantic that could serve as a refuge for Catholics. In exchange for this assignment, the king would receive 1/5th of all gold and silver produced each year in the colony and two Indian arrows would be sent to Windsor Castle on every  Easter celebration. Maryland was erected in palatine colony which meant that it gave the new owner governor, Lord Baltimore and his descendants, the same rights as an independent state. The Burgesses of Virginia opposed the charter and were not happy about the establishment of a nearby new settlement. In order to protect the interests of Maryland, Baltimore chose to stay in England and sent his younger brothers Leonard and George Calvert to America.

June 1632 - Isaac Allerton, former agent of the Plymouth Colony, and James Shirley create a company to settle trading posts on the Kennebec 
and Penobscot Rivers.
Isaac Allerton was born in London circa 1585. Tailor by trade, he had been attracted by Protestant separatists and went  young into exile in Leiden, Holland. He was among the Pilgrim Fathers who went aboard the Mayflower establish the Plymouth Colony in 1620. He was introduced to William Bradford where he became the assistant for several years before sharing his time between London and New England as agent of the colony in charge of dealing with lenders and backers. He was personally involved in some risky business using the funds of the colony. These operations failed and he engaged to repay his debt, in a traffic on trade between Plymouth and England. In 1629, he brought Thomas Morton in America, a year after his ouster making him permanently a persona non grata. The examination of Allerton's accounts revealed irregularities such as William Bradford finally took the decision to dismiss him. He moved then to Marblehead, near Salem where he began trading fish.

Edward Winslow
June 1632 - Back to England a few months earlier to promote the interests of his colony, Edward Winslow returns to Plymouth with a cargo of goods.

July 24, 1632 – Unaware that the Dutch already occupy a part of the area, King Charles 1 grants Sir Edmund Plowden ownership of a land including Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Long Island and Manhattan, to establish a colony called New Albion. He hides behind the fact that the territory was discovered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot, then in the service of King Henry VII of England.

Sir Edmund Plowden (1590-July 1659)
 He was the grandson of prominent lawyer Edmund Plowden, Mary Tudor’s councilor, remained faithful to Catholicism despite Queen Elizabeth’s insistence. He received the title of Count Palatine, Lord Governor and Captain General of the Province of New Albion. The first shipment was to be organized under his leadership in 1642.

Summer 1632 - Edward Winslow makes an exploratory visit to Connecticut Valley after Indians reports celebrating fertility of the lands in order to estimated trading possibilities for the Plymouth settlers.

Puritans going to church
August 1632 - Thomas Dudley opposes John Winthrop at the head of the Massachusetts Bay colony. He accuses him of failing in the Newtown (Cambridge) development project and overstepping his authority as governor.
Building a fort to protect Boston, sending 30 lbs powder to Plymouth and the leniency granted to those who broke the rules are among the many objections raised by Dudley against Winthrop to justify an abuse of power.

The latter replied stoically that his allegations were simply unjustified. Since their arrival in New England, there were many subjects of contention between Thomas Dudley and John Winthrop. Dudley, who was short-tempered, adamant about his Puritan convictions, resented the prominence given to Winthrop. He had not wanted to stay in Boston, preferring to live at Roxbury. The town was, however, close enough so he could keep an eye on the governor. Dudley was already 54 years old when he arrived in Massachusetts, but his public career was just beginning.

August 1632 - John Oldham's house in Watertown is burnt to the ground while he was making fire inside without chimney.

in  September  1632 - Isaac Allerton and Moses Maverick (1611-1685) start their business in the port of Marblehead, near Salem. They have already acquired fishing boats and build a warehouse and housing for fishers.

Puritans debating
October 25, 1632 - Governor John Winthrop and some officials from Boston travel to Wessagusset aboard the Lyon and walk down to Plymouth where they are welcomed by William Bradford

They were particularly well received by the people of Plymouth and took part in a common worship and various religious debates organized by Roger Williams.They left on October 31, obviously very satisfied with their visit.

December 6, 1632 - Captain David De Vries Petersz lands at Zwaanedael, the small Dutch colony established the year before in the Bay of Delaware.

The place was deserted, and on the ground were bones of 32 settlers killed by Indians while the fort had been burnt down.

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