Tuesday, October 13, 2015

1646 - Powhatan make peace with the English

John Winthrop, Jr.
January, 1646 - John Winthrop, Jr. establishes the city of Nameaug (also called Pequot, become New London after 1658) in the mouth of  the Thames River with the authorization of the General Court of Massachusetts. The latter indeed considers this geographical area under its jurisdiction following the conquest of Pequot territory.

Rev. Thomas Peters was first ordered by the Court to attend John Winthrop, Jr. in the development of the new plantation but he had to return to England a few months later. William Cheseborough was then invited to settle in the colony but he did not find the place suitable, preferring the site of Wequetequc, about 10 miles away.

The General Court of Connecticut did not delay to come forward, asserting New London territory within its own jurisdiction, under a royal patent. Massachusetts, however, maintained its positions and the dispute was submitted to the United Colonies commissioners who decided in favor for Connecticut.
Among the first settlers included Thomas Minor, Walter Palmer, William Cheseborough and Thomas Stanton.

Thomas Minor (Chew Magna (Engl.) 1608 - Stonington (CT) 1690) 
He immigrated in Massachusetts in 1629 and lived first in Salem. He later moved to Charlestown where he met Grace Palmer who became his wife in 1634 and bore him 10 children. The couple left to Hingham in 1636 before settling permanently in Connecticut. 

Walter Palmer (1585-1661) this Puritan separatist had left Gravesend on April 5, 1629 to Salem in the Massachusetts Bay colony aboard the Four Sisters. He was charged the next year of beating a man to death but was acquitted thanks to the testimony of his friend William Cheseborough. He lived a few years later in Charlestown a local councilor of which he became but decided in 1643 to go to settle in a new city called Seacunke (current Rehoboth). Disappointed by the behavior of the Plymouth authorities, he chose heading to Connecticut at the invitation at John Winthrop's, Jr. together with his son-in-law Thomas Minor and his family.

Thomas Stanton (1616-1677), this merchant come from England in 1635 was pointed out in the following by John Winthrop, Jr. for his knowledge of the Indian language. He was committed as interpreter and took part in the Pequot War where he was almost killed during the Battle of Fiarfield in 1637. He was among the delegates who drew up the Treaty of Hartford ending the war a year later. Stanton was therefore appointed as interpreter of the United Colonies of New England.
In 1649, he purchased  a land along the Pawcatuck River (today Stonington) where he was allowed to base a trading post matched by a 3-year monopoly of three years on trade with the Indians of the region.

February 28 1646 - Roger Scott, a resident of Lynn, is judged by a court of Massachusetts to have slept in the church.

March 6, 1646 - Joseph Jenkes receives from the General Court of Massachusetts the first patent for his farming tools factory.
It allows him to protect himself against competition.

April 12, 1646 - Edward Hopkins is elected governor of Connecticut. He holds this position for the second time.

May 13, 1646 - John Winthrop is appointed governor of Massachusetts Bay for the 9th time.

May, 1646 - New Amsterdam receives its first regular shipment of slaves.

First slaves coming from Angola had been landed in New Amsterdam in 1625 but they were still few to be introduced in the colony until the late 1630s. Nonetheless, the Dutch West India Company had become from these years, the most important European slave trader. Just for 1644, it acquired 6900 slaves coming from the West African coast of Guinea. Most were sold in its Carribean colonies but some from Angola were sent to New Netherlands to clear forests, open roads, build houses and work in the fields. The latter activity would promote a fast agricultural development of the colony and ensure export-oriented farm production, coming to compete with fur trade condemned to a slow decline.
Accordingly, the Company soothed its monopoly and authorized the Dutch settlers to send their products to Angola in exchange for black people likely to work on their lands. These found however the Africans "proud and deceptive" and preferred "experimented" slaves coming in particular from the transit station in Curaçao. They did not either disdain to source from traffickers. This flow allowed the Dutch farmers to prepare for the future by grabbing cheap labour force intended to make their business attractive and profitable. Slavery was to ensure prosperity of the Hudson Valley where there was an endemic lack of workforce. 
Between 1636 and 1646, the price of the able-bodied male slaves was multiplied by 3.

Boston(MA), the North Battery built in 1646
May, 1646 - The General Court of Massachusetts receives a petition call for the end of the exclusion of civilian jobs affecting the members of the churches of England and Scotland.

Signed by William Vassall, Samuel Maverick, Dr Robert Child and four others prominent Presbyterians, it was considered seditious and the petitioners sentenced to heavy fine. They decided then to go to defend their cause in England. When Child wanted to leave for England to present his grievances, he was arrested and his luggage confiscated. It was found inside a petition to the Parliament suggesting to formalize Presbyterianism in New England and to appoint a new governor.

He was brought before the Court and sentenced to six-months in prison. Those who took however the sea were admonished by minister John Cotton who threatened them with the wrath of heaven. The crossing was accordingly in dire conditions and upon their arrival, the Parliament showed little disposition to listen to petitioners’ complaints.
William Vassall had arrived in New England with his family with 1628. He had acquired a position of assistant to the governor of the Massachusetts colony but was quickly pointed out as a trouble-maker. He led above all a struggle for religious toleration which found its outcome in the petition that he managed to send to England entitled Bill for Liberty of Conscience. It claimed in particular access to Communion in the Church of New England for Anglicans and Presbyterians. The context of 1646 and Parliamentarians’ victory was not favorable.
William Vassall's coat of arms
Azur a sun in splendor and
 a chalice in pale gold

May, 1646 - encouraged by the petition of William Vassall and his friends, unrest for Presbyterianism compels the General Court of Massachusetts to invite the clergy to meet in Cambridge to discuss issues pertaining to the government of the church and discipline to be enforced.

June 2, 1646 - the city of Nausett (today Eastham) founded two years earlier by Thomas Prence is incorporated into the Plymouth colony.

June, 1646 - Timothy Hatherly and John Browne are chosen as commissioners to represent Plymouth at the United Colonies.

June 25, 1646 - the New Amsterdam Court sentences to death the slave Jan Creoly for sodomizing 10-year-old slave boy Manuel Congo.

The facts occurred in Curaçao but were reported once the slaves arrived at New Amsterdam. Sodomy being punished for death, Jan Creoly was condemned to be strangled in public and his body burned to ashes. The case was more complex when it came to judge Manuel Congo. The law also punished him with death but given his young age, he could be considered a victim. Manuel confessed he had been raped but was not innocent either. He was sentenced to attend the execution of Creoly tied to a post and beaten with rods.

July 28, 1646 – Director General of New Netherlands, Willem Kieft, is forced to leave office at the request of his supervisory authority. Peter Stuyvesant is appointed to his place.

Since the end of the war against the Indians, the credibility of governor Kieft had definitively been undermined. The arm-wrestling that opposed to him the Council of Eight on the introduction of a deemed unfair new tax worked in favor of the latter. Its members sent to the Dutch West India Company a petition calling for his dismissal in order to safeguard the colony. It was heard and Kieft received the order to go back to Europe.
Like the cow which spills the milk pot it produces, according to the proverb, Kieft had destroyed the good results due to the energy that he had displayed in the first years of his term. The war he had led against the will of its inhabitants had reduced by half the population of the colony and shared between the erring ways of the Company and those of his representative, people of New Netherlands had the feeling to have been deceived. Especially those of the coast, because if in the North, thanks to the personality and intelligence of Arent Van Corlaer reigned with the Indians principles of mutual respect, it was in the South only bloodshed and devastation, fruits of a tragic personal ambition.

Arent Van Corlaer (Nijkerk (Holland) 1600 - Shenectady 1672)
He was only 17 years old when he arrived in New Netherlands. As cousin of the Van Rensselaers, who were among the main patroons in the Hudson Valley, he was first assistant to Rensselaerwijk manager, then became the superintendent. He favored the development of the future city of Albany and founded Shenectady. He was especially remarkable for the relationship he maintained with the Iroquois who even nicknamed him " King of Great Britain ". He was one of the first to perceive the humanity of the native Indians and to understand their value. The Indians were numerous in the region where he lived and it had been easy for them to invest or destroy the area under his charge, but Van Corlaer drew lessons from the wars that had bloodied Virginia and New England to impose the idea that the continent was big enough for the two peoples. He concluded in this way with the Iroquois a solemn pact they called "the silver chain of friendship” He was also the one who taught the Europeans to use the quick Indian canoes to go up and down the river instead of their slow boats.

July 30, 1646 - Colonel Edward Hill acts temporarily as governor of Maryland in the absence of Leonard Calvert.

Many people left then Virginia for Maryland to the point that the colonial Assembly sent Colonel Edward Hill and Capt. Thomas Willoughby to require their return. As Maryland had no government, some members of the provincial council suggested to Hill ensuring the position of governor. The rebels prided themselves on the appointment of a Protestant governor.
Edward Hill had arrived in Virginia in 1620 and had settled with his family at Kecoughtan near Elizabeth City. He was considered as one of the main tobacco growers.

August 8, 1646 - Monquine, the son of Sagamore Natawormett sells to William Bradford and a group of settlers of Plymouth a land up Cushnock along the Kennebec River.

September 1, 1646 - the synod to decide the issue of discipline in the church of New England takes up its works in Cambridge. It follows the requests made by the Presbyterian.
The assembly was finally suspended two weeks later.

September 13, 1646 - the government of Massachusetts receives an order from the Foreign Committee of London allowing the planters of Narragansett Bay, including Samuel Gorton and his congregation, to return home without fear of being arrested.

Most advisors to the Court were to accept the demand but some opposed it and it was decided to send an agent to England in the person of Edward Winslow. The governor and the Company felt they were within their rights by excluding from Massachusetts heretics such as Samuel Gorton whose misbehavior had been a threat to the public order of the colony.

October, 1646 - Nectowance, the son of Opechancanough, called “King of the Indians " concludes a treaty with the government of Virginia on behalf of the tribes the leader of which he is now.

Under the terms of this treaty, the Indians left a wide part of their territory to the English and recognized their ownership on the remaining lands within the jurisdiction of the king of England. They became from that moment, dependent on the English government. Added to the payment of an annual tribute to the representatives of the Crown, it was up to the governor to approve and confirm the appointment of their leaders. This concession was to hasten the decay of the Powhatan Confederacy.
Governor William Berkeley had rather to maintain the divisions between tribes what allowed to limit their territory and to keep them in an isolation reluctant to their development whereas the Europeans could extend more freely.
The territory between James and York River was now forbidden to Indians not bearing a safe conduct and a special striped shirts. Others could be shot by the English. In exchange, the government of Virginia promised to protect the tribes from their foes.

Necotowance (1600-1649) is considered  as the elder son of Opechancanough but he could be his nephew, according to some family trees. After the signing of this treaty, the English nicknamed him " King of the Indians ".
Definitively weakened, exhausted by wars that lasted for nearly 40 years, Powhatans had to face the facts that they could do nothing against the English juggernaut and that they now needed to struggle against the outright disappearance of their people. They would have for it to accept the most humiliating conditions, becoming servants for the English, allowing their children to work almost as slaves for the settlers and witnessing a gradual whittling of their lands with the complicity of a contemptuous colonial government. Some Powhatans subsequently chose to move westward.

October, 1646 – the Gyllene Haj (Golden Shark) arrives in the New Sweden colony carrying a shipment of goods to trade with the Indians and the needs for the settlers.

The arrival of this boat was particularly welcome in the colony despite the fact that it brought neither new immigrants nor fresh supplies. Governor Johnan Printz thought that the coming of the Gyllene Haj announced his recall given that he had already spent more than three years in the colony he had felt harder than the other twenty four he had passed to serve in his native country. He accepted however the extension of his mandate.
The colony then had only 183 people and Printz sent a message to the authorities to demand new supplies and labor. He had to wait more than a year. However, he had built in the meantime a flour mill and a brewery, and fit build a wharf and a shipbuilding workshop.

Jesuit priest Isaac Jogues a a martyr

October 18, 1646 - considered as a warlock, Jesuit Father Isaac Jogues is killed by Iroquois in the village of Ossernenon. Hid head is planted on a fence and his body thrown in the Mohawk River.

Isaac Jogues
(1607-1646) was born in France in Orléans. Ordained in 1636, he left for New France to evangelize the Indians. Captured in 1642 by Mohawks and tortured, he was brought as a slave in one of their villages near Albany. Saved by Dutch merchants, he sailed back to France but returned to America for another mission in 1644. In charge of negotiating peace with Iroquois, he was accused of being the cause of a bad crop and sentenced to death.

October 28, 1646 - Reverend John Eliot preaches for the first time before Indians at Dorchester, Massachusetts Bay.

Rev. John Eliot
He delivered his sermon to a small group of Algonquians gathered with their sachem Nonantum (Newton). The Indians understood him well enough to ask questions and affected by his courtesy, invited him to preach again.

October, 1646 - Edward Winslow leaves Plymouth for England. He will never return to America.

He was appointed by the government of Massachusetts Bay to represent its interests against the announced return of Samuel Gorton. He had himself written a book entitled Hypocrisy Unmasked against the one that he presented as a dangerous heretic.
He was to stay in England, designed to hold a minor office under Oliver Cromwell.

November 4, 1646 - the General Court of Massachusetts passes a bill sentencing heresy to death.

November 14, 1646 - decided to put an end to the Presbyterian petitioners case, Governor John Winthrop and lawyers of the General Court of Massachusetts substantiate their discriminatory politics banishing Robert Child from the colony.

November 22, 1646 - the residents of Brooklyn (Breuckelen) receive from Director General Willem Kieft permission to incorporate the village at their expenses. Jan Teunissen becomes officially its first constable by decision of the New Amsterdam council, December 1, 1646.
Leonard Calvert (1606-1647)
Governor of Maryland

December, 1646 - Governor Leonard Calvert lands at St Mary’s City escorted by a company of soldiers supplied by William Berkeley and re-establishes his authority. 

Colonel Edward Hill who was acting since July was relieved of his duties and the protagonists of the rebellion were arrested with the exception of Richard Ingle left to England the year before. Calvert offered finally amnesty to all Protestants who would further forsake opposing to his government . These two years of civil wars were called " The Plundering Time ". William Claiborne made his return on the Maryland scene and escaped prosecution for not having been engaged in degradations made by Richard Ingle and his men.

December, 1646 - The Dutch West India Company admits that the “patroonship” system is a failure.

Reverend John Eliot preaching before Indians 

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