Tuesday, March 29, 2016

1665 - "Concession and Agreement" of New Jersey

Dutch ship setting sail from New York
January 25, 1665 - According to a report from Governor Richard Nicholls, disregarding their peace commitments concluded in September, 1664 with the English, the Mohawks and Iroquois have raised an army of 3000 warriors that threatened Albany before heading to the Pocumtucs tribe retreated in the Upper Connecticut valley.

Though peaceful farming people once weakened by a series of diseases, the Pocumtucs were accused by Mohawks for murdering one of their dignitaries when the English and the Dutch struggled to organize a peace conference between both tribes to get over their territorial feuds. Actually, the Pocumtucs had been, since 1636, fur suppliers to the Pynchon family, prominent merchants who had founded in particular the city of Springfield but the decline of wild animals led them to hunt more and further, up to lands belonging to Mohawks
It was also in the latter's interest to neutralize a competitor operating in an area of plentiful salmons, very sought after on New York markets.

New York City
February 2nd, 1665 - New Amsterdam which has about 1500 inhabitants, is officially named New York, in honor of James, Duke of York, the brother of King Charles II

February 6, 1665 - Officials of the Dutch West India Company require all the officers and settlers to take up arms against the English.

February 6, 1665 - Defeated by the Mohawks, the remaining members of the Pocumtucs and nearby Pennacook and Sokoki tribes find refuge near Springfield, Massachusetts. Pocumtuc Sachem Onapequin is killed with all his family.

Once their campaign ended, the Mohawks joined Senecas who were preparing an expedition against Susquehannocks.

February 6, 1665 - William Drummond, the new governor of Albemarle County, Carolina, organizes the first General assembly of the colony at Hall Creek in current Pasquotank County (Grand Assembly of Albemarle).

Appointed to his post by Lord Berkeley, Drummond was sided by a secretary, Thomas Woodward, and council of six members with particular responsibility for justice.
It is likely that all the rich planters of the county, whether George Durant, Samuel Prieklove, John Harvey or landowners of Pasquotank, Chowan and Currituck Counties such as Thomas Relfe, Timothy Biggs, Thomas Jarvis and Thomas Pollock were present during this first assembly.

James, duke of York
February 8, 1665 - Governor of New York Richard Nicholls requires each city of Long Island to send two delegates to Hempstead at the end of the month for adopting the new Duke’s Laws.

Among these, hitting her mother or his father as denigrating the " True God " were punishable by death. These laws left little room for personal freedom and representation of the people within the provincial government. The code required the population to submit to the new administration, to pay new taxes and ensure religious tolerance. Nicholls acknowledged that they were not as democratic as in other colonies but that their purpose was to maintain the " Memory of Old England " and to implement a Royal government in lands still filled up with Republicans.
The inhabitants of Long Island were mostly disappointed and did not delay asserting their opposition by going up against magistrates and tax collectors ushering in a long period of unrest. In the city of New York which had a strong Dutch majority, more than 75 % of the residents considered themselves disgruntled and turned against the wealthy merchants families as the Steenwycks and Hardenbroecks which collaborated with the English. Governor Nicholls attaimpted to maintain order but the disrespect of his troops towards goods and people became a source of further conflict.

Richard Nicholls (Ampthill, Bedfordshire, 1624 - North Sea, off Suffolk, May 28, 1672) – this son of lawyer, graduated of Oxford, fluent in French and Dutch, first became famous by commanding a group of Royalist Cavaliers during the Civil War. After the defeat of King Charles 1st, he chose to accompany his family into exile. He was appointed shortly after the Restoration Groom of the Bedchamber to the Duke of York and it is thanks to the influence of the latter that he became member of the commission consisting of Sir Robert Carr, George Cartwright and Samuel Maverick to conquer New Netherlands.

February 10, 1665 - Publication of the document entitled " Concession and Agreement of the Lords Proprietors of the province of Nova Caesarea or New Jersey to and with All and Every  the Adventurers and All such as Shall Settle or Plant there ", better known as " Magna Carta of New Jersey ".

Considered the first constitution of the  province of New Jersey, it outlines the principles of a new kind of popular government.
Whatever might have been the motives of John Berkeley and George Carteret, they had to use a strategy likely to quickly attract new settlers to their territory. They knew in this to take advantage of the awakening in Europe of concepts such as freedom of conscience or the right of people to self-government, even strange but strong enough words to convince candidates for adventure.
By guaranteeing freedom of conscience and giving generously large pieces of land, this "charter" represented the most liberal political grant of privileges ever provided by an English colonial Proprietor. Carteret had the ambition to ensure as soon as possible the development of his province and hoped with Berkeley to get the best profits. They won’t be disappointed.
Having set out various rules including the appointment of government officials, “Concession and Agreement" stipulated that all those who agreed to become subjects of the King of England and swore him allegiance would be admitted as "free men" and enjoy all registered freedoms and privileges. Consequently, these had the right to choose their representatives to legislate with the Governor and Council. Then, it was up to the Great Assembly to vote or invalidate laws, introduce fair taxes, divide the province into districts and allocate a piece of land to any individual, free, servant, man or woman; to establish courts, appoint judges for civil and criminal cases, to revise sentences or even clear the accused according to the facts. An article drew particularly attention. It stated that all residents in the province could not be assaulted, punished, worried or questioned because of a difference of opinion or religious belief as long as it did not interfere with civil peace, but they could instead enjoy them fully and freely. There is no doubt that, once printed and released, the "Concession and Agreement" sent shock waves, both in England and its colonies. This was particularly the case in Connecticut where cities like New Haven, Milford, Wethersfield and Guilford were subject to the authority of the Puritans granting free men's status only to church members.

Even in the family circle, the householder was vested with all the powers and necessarily blindly obeyed. There were certainly among them, just and upright men, but they were merciless to the unrepentant sinner and those who broke moral code would incur the most severe punishments. They demanded to live in full compliance with the rules laid in religion, sanctioning any difference of opinion with banishment. According to them, no one could own  a shop or a land, and even vote if he was not member of the church.
When Charles II was restored on the throne, he made repeal the laws of the New Haven colony and the charter he granted to Connecticut aimed at providing more liberal rules to the province, even if himself was not especially driven by a democratic spirit. But it turned out that the government of New Haven had biased in favour of Cromwell at the expense of the Stuarts and that it had sheltered persons involved in the death of his father. The king intended, in this way, to reduce the political power of the Puritans.
For fear of being absorbed by Connecticut, some residents of New Haven among the most radicals, led in particular by Robert Treat, attempted to found a new colony and even tried for it to agree with the former governor of New Netherlands Peter Stuyvesant but their project failed.

Robert Treat
Robert Treat (February 23, 1624 - July 12, 1710), from Piminster, Somerset, he left with his family to Massachusetts when he was 14. They settled first in Watertown before moving to Wethersfield, a city recently founded in the Connecticut valley. In November, 1639, the young Robert left living to Milford in the New Haven colony where he found to work within the team charged with the surveying of the area, an unusual honor for someone his age. Back to Wethersfield, he was elected a tax collector and married, on Christmas Day 1647, Jane Tapp who would give him eight children. The couple chose then to settle in Milford where it gradually purchased a number of lands making of Robert Treat one of the main owners of the region. Thanks to his surveyor knowledge, he was chosen by the inhabitants to solve their disputes over property lines. He also exercised the duties of trustee, executor or estate appraiser. Elected in 1653, representative of Milford at the General Court of New Haven, he also served as military officer and later as magistrate. He handled in particular the investigation to find Generals Whalley and Goffe, sued for voting the death of Charles 1st. These remained untraceable and some did not fail to remember that Treat had been previously regarded as one of their friends. He held this position until 1664, when he served briefly at the General Court of Connecticut.

February 15, 1665 - The Royal commissioners organize a meeting in Plymouth but the people refuse to take part claiming that their absence would leave their women and children at the mercy of Indians.

The Hempstead Convention
March 1st, 1665 -  Hempstead Convention – Governor Richard Nicholls rams the Duke’s Laws during an assembly met in Westchester. These concern the 16 towns of Long Island, Staten Island and Westchester, requiring those who benefited from patents under the Dutch jurisdiction to renew them by paying taxes.

March 4, 1665 - While the Great Plague has just reached the walled City of London, King Charles II declares officially the war on the United Provinces of Netherlands.

March 11, 1665 - New York approves a new code guaranteeing the religious rights of the Protestants.

March 15, 1665 - Governor of Massachusetts John Endecott dies in Boston at 76.

An austere and unyielding Puritan, he had been, in 1629, the founding pioneer of the Massachusetts Bay colony of which he had originally chosen to establish the capital at Salem. Having, one year later, ceded place to John Winthrop, he later lived in his shadow until his death in 1649. Apart from a proficiency in military affairs that had earned him to command the colonial militia, he left especially behind him remembrance of a governor to the sometimes simplistic religious principles but ruthless rigidity who, after Ann Hutchinson's controversy in 1638, had sought to eradicate Quakerism from Massachusetts by inflicting the worst torments upon its members, becoming moreover notorious for several death sentences. The Restoration of King Charles II weakened, from 1660, a wide part of the powers he had enjoyed under Oliver Cromwell’s government and it is not without a bit of hypocrisy that he brought himself to accept the strengthening of Royal control over his colony. He died at a moment when the gravity center of the English colonization was moving from Boston to New York.

April, 1665 - John Winthrop Jr. keeps his position as governor of Connecticut.

Spring, 1665 - Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck (1646-1666) is the first American native graduate from Harvard College.

Originally from the island of Martha's Vineyard, he belonged to the Wampanoag tribe. He first attended Roxbury Preparatory School before joining the Indian Harvard College together with countryman Joel Iacoomes, drowned shortly after in a shipwreck.
He unfortunately had to die from tuberculosis within a year after graduation.

April 7, 1665 - The Monmouth Act signed by Governor of New York Richard Nicholls confirms the sale of lands by Lenape Chief of Navesink Popomora to captain Johhn Bowne, James Grover and a group of settlers from Gravesend, Long Island. It states that the new owners are committed to bring, at least, hundred families in the three following years.

Stretching along the southern Raritan Bayshore, the Navesink territory (current Monmouth County) would quickly have a growth of its population following the arrival of families from Rhode Island and Massachusetts Bay. Two new cities, Middletown and Shrewsbury will be founded the same year, the first one being located at the junction of three Indian trails, near the village of Chaquasitt, easily reached from the sea.

April 8, 1665 - Sachem Popomora and his brother Mishacoing confirm to Governor Richard Nicholls and the Rhode Island Company the sale of lands in the Navesink area.

The governor granted, the day after, patents to the investors of the Company including a more significant part to Richard Lippincott in his capacity as main promoter. These patents gave their beneficiaries complete freedom of conscience whatever their way to worship.
from the fall, Lippincott and his friends began to settle in Navesink when they joined the group Captain John Bowne to found the city of Shrewsbury.

Lippincott coat of arms
Richard Lippincott (1615-1683) – descendant of the old Norman nobility, he decided in 1640 to leave his native Devonshire for Dorchester, Massachusetts, where he became member of the Puritan church before settling down in Boston.
Just like George Fox, he did not feel comfortable with the militant character of Puritanism to which he preferred the exercise of freedom of conscience. He proved so tenacious in his interpretation of the religious doctrine that he was officially excommunicated in 1651 and preferred to return in England in the hope of finding more tolerance.
Without knowing exactly when he met George Fox, Lippincott attended the Society of Friends what earned him to be arrested in Plymouth, Devonshire, in 1655 and jailed a few months. The persecutions against the Quakers ended with the Restoration of Charles II but Lippincott chose, however, to sail to Rhode Island, convinced to enjoy freedom of worship next to Roger Williams. He settled with other Quakers in Cape Cod in 1661 where he organized the first Quakers meetings in North America and joined shortly after an association to support the purchase of Navesink Indian territory in New Jersey.

Richard Bellingham
Governor of Massachusetts
May, 1665 - Richard Bellingham is elected governor of Massachusetts.

He had already served twice as governor in 1641 and 1654. At now 73, it was an old man who took the lead of the colony with for first concern to follow the line drawn by his predecessor John Endecott. Although led by stiff Puritanism, he had yet hit the local news in 1641 when he had broken certain rules by celebrating himself his second marriage.

May 14, 1665 - Commissioners sent by king Charles II meet the deputy governors of Massachusetts and the magistrates of Boston to provide them a part of their instructions.

They announced that the king was willing to ensure the prosperity of the colony and to extend, if necessary, the privileges of the charter granted by his father. They stated that the purpose of their mission was to make sure of the loyalty of his majesty’s subjects living overseas and restore confidence, sure that they would know how to thwart malicious individual projects. They added that they had been appointed by the king to draw up a map of the colony in order to respond to complaints about its borders, and not, as some claimed, to establish an annual £ 5000 tax or levy a tax on farmed land.

The officials of the colony were finally instructed to get delivered all the people who would have been guilty of high treason to bring them back to England, to ensure that the Navigation Act is properly respected and to repeal all the laws passed under their government which would have been contrary to the acts of Parliament.

May 15, 1665 - Governor Richard Bellingham informs the members of the General Court of Massachusetts about the provisions announced by Royal Commissioners.

These accepted the favors and graces that promised the message, testifying to their dedication and loyalty. They agreed to commission a map of the colony and copies of the king’s letter so that it can be distributed.
The commissioners presented, the same day, the remaining instructions to the Council. They had to be informed of the contents of treaties concluded between the settlers and the Indian chiefs and ensure that justice is done if the latter would have been wronged. They had to inquire the conditions in which schools operated and how to organize the conversion of the Indians.  The commissioners communicated various complaints including that relative to one John Porter Jr., nevertheless deemed as a bad lot, to whom they had yet delivered a safe-conduct.
Having reminded that Porter was an unsavoury character, condemned repeatedly for infamies, The Court declared that the actions of the commission violated the charter of the colony that gave it exclusively the privilege to pass its own laws and ensure their enforcement. This answer did not satisfy the commissioners who took advantage of it to raise the case of Thomas Deane, tried a few years earlier.

May 16, 1665 - the General Court of the Massachusetts gives its answers to the Royal Commission.

It considered fictional the complaints of the Indians, in particular the Narragansett whose trickery, according to it, was very notorious. It listed its schools and colleges, some of which being attended by young Indians. It protested its desire to remain loyal to His Majesty and fulfil its duties in opposing any breach of the privileges of its charter. It considered that there was no person convicted of high treason in the colony except Whaley and Goffe, left both to take refuge in Connecticut. The General Court finally claimed to have repealed all the laws which had seemed contrary.
June 3rd, 1665 - Thomas Prence is reelected governor of Plymouth. Josiah Winslow and Thomas Soutworth are chosen as commissioners to the United Colonies of New England.

June 11, 1665 - According to the report he received from Sir Geoffrey Palmer, King Charles II informs the people of Maine that he considered the petition presented by Ferdinando Gorges, the grandson of Sir Ferdinando Gorges relating to his rights on the province. He asserts having been sensitive to the arguments of the petitioner and thinks, unless otherwise stated, to return to him the enjoyment of his properties.

Governor Richard Bellingham answered to the king that the charter of Massachusetts Bay existed for 10 to 11 years prior to that granted to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and there was thereby no reason for give him back Maine.

June 12, 1665 – Governor Richard Nicholls extends the Duke’s Laws to the city of New York. He chooses Captain Thomas Willett to become its first mayor.

The choice was appropriate insofar Willett had already spent several years in New Amsterdam and was a key architect of a surrender which had been made without shedding a drop of blood. He naturally spoke fluent Dutch and had many interests in the city. Under the Duke’s Laws, he was assisted by a council of five aldermen within which three were of Dutch origin and by a sheriff. Allard Anthony was the first to hold this last office.

June 15, 1665 – The Court of Sessions holds its first meeting in New York. This one consists of Mayor Thomas Willett and 5 members of his council who also act as judges.

June 18, 1665 - the members of the Royal Commission are heading to Porstmouth, New Hampshire.

The residents expected to hear that they would soon be freed from the supervision of Massachusetts and that the commissioners would restore instead the king’s authority. The commission spent some time investigating the rights that Captain Mason once had on the province and many people, including his former servants, recalled how Massachusetts had taken on New Hampshire jurisdiction.
Although they had received from the authorities of Massachusetts, the order not to show any allegiance to the commissioners, the people of Exeter, Dover and other cities expressed their respect and attachment to the king.

June 22, 1665 - Governor Nicholls informs the cities of Long Island that England declared war on the Netherlands. All are ordered to watch the possible arrival of Dutch warships and if it is to happen, to form militias and converge without delay west of the island while pending instructions.

June 23, 1665 – the Royal Commissioners and the General Court of Massachusetts enter into a wrestling-match about the Thomas Deane’s case.

The commissioners had decided to hear and judge his case against the  Massachusetts Bay Company and the Government of the colony, hoping that it would be represented by its attorney-general. The Court argued in response that the commission was in breach of the privileges that granted its charter and intended to ignore its request. The commissioners then demanded all the documents they had handed over to the Court to be printed and published, including the king’s letters dated June 28, 1662 and February 25, 1664. Lest waive the rights that granted them the charter, the Government and the Court of Massachusetts insisted that it gave them the right to govern themselves according to their own laws and that any person living on their territory was obliged to submit to their authority.

June 24, 1665 – the Mayor and Council of New York pass a set of laws about trade in beached whales. The governor should henceforth be informed about it and the person who will have found an animal will receive a fifteenth gallon of oil.

June 30, 1665 - The Lords Proprietors of Carolina are granted by King Charles II a second charter redrawing the boundaries of their province. This now extends northward from 29 degrees latitude, on full Spanish territory up to 36°30 ', at the edge Virginia..

July 16, 1665 - the report of the royal commissioners refers to the eagerness of the people of Maine (called then Yorkshire) and New Hampshire to get freed from Massachusetts jurisdiction. They hope for a king’s decision to their advantage.

July 26, 1665From Boston, Sir Robert Carr, George Cartwright and Samuel Maverick send to King's Privy Councillor Lord Arlington a demning report on the Massachusetts authorities.
The territory of New Hampshire starts 3 miles north of the Merrimac and extends until the Piscataqua River over a 60 miles length. While its inhabitants enjoy several patents, all the province is illegally supervised by Massachusetts. Nicholls having been held up in New York by fear of a Dutch attack, the commissioners leave the colony as they found it, under the government of Massachusetts, although its residents are impatient to be placed under the King’s protection, as it appears in the attached petitions.

The people of the province of Yorkshire, formerly known as Maine, who supported unjust and biased actions were immediately placed under royal jurisdiction by the commissioners, convinced that it was the surest way to restore peace and to end disputes between the various parties, leaving however the final decision to His Majesty. This province had five towns, Kittery, York, Wells, Scarborough and Falmouth, all located at the seaside, comprising at most thirty houses each, and still, small-sized. The settlements beyond Sagadahock, offered by the king to the duke of York, chose their representatives to lead them, what they badly needed. On the three rivers, the one located east of Kennebec, the Shipscot and the Pemaquid, lied three plantations, the main having no more than 20 houses where lived the worst men. Without government, they had fled there to escape some punishment; most were fishermen and shared their women as their boats. There was a right place for a harbor on the Piscataqua River, both large and safe; it was discussed to fortify it but Massachusetts was opposed. This place would however deserve to be strengthened like no other one in New England.
The authorities of Massachusetts decided to convene the General Court on August 1st to organize their opposition, hoping to defend so far as they could the contents of their charter ; to justify in particular their way of appointing the members of the church and the free men, regardless of the many admonishments from the king. Whatever the exceptions they agreed to consent to please the king and show their good will toward him, they actually denied none of their principles, sure that the king and his secretaries in England, just like his good subjects in America, would eventually grow weary. Unless His Majesty made decisions quickly, all the sentences imposed on Massachusetts would go unheeded.

It included the loyalist party, still here in the same situation as it was in England a few years ago and which, although it had a majority, had suffered intimidation as not to dare coming right out. There was no better solution than to suspend the Massachusetts charter as King Charles 1st had already tried to do in 1636 or 1637. And if His Majesty assured the residents that they will no longer be obliged to attend religious worship, most of them would be delighted; but such action would have effect only with a security presence. If His Majesty left on the contrary Puritans keep their position, after they declared not to recognize his authority, those who endured the most would be afraid never to be able to express again, with all the consequences inevitably resulting. Those who asserted their loyalty were threatened and lived in fear; they strongly urged the commissioners, hoping from the king that he assured as quickly as possible their defence and protection, scared to be ruined for having shown loyalty to him.

William Berkeley
Governor of Virginia
August 1st, 1665 – After being informed that the Dutch fleet commanded by Admiral Ruyter could sail up the American shores, Governor William Berkeley places Virginia on alert.He announces that he is able to raise immediately an army of 2500 men and had 1500 horses. He gets, according to him, the best shooters, invulnerable less than 500 yards.

August 1st, 1665 - Disregarding the mediation of Royal Commissioners, the General Court met in Boston declares to the people of New Hampshire that violations of the laws and established authority as the desecration of Sabbath, contempt or absence to the religious services will be the object of a physical punishment and a payment of a fine, as stipulated in the Charter. The Kittery police office ris responsible for displaying this provision.

August 2nd, 1665 - Unable to find a solution to the dispute between the Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts colonies for knowing to which belongs the former Narragansett territory (the Westerly area between Mystic and Pawcatuck Rivers), claimed by the first two on behalf of their charter and by the third as compensation for its participation in the Pequot war, the king’s commissioners declare this one " Royal Province " awaiting a compromise. This decision allocates all its income to the Crown.

Philip Carteret arriving in New Jersey
August, 1665 - New Governor Philip Carteret arrives in New Jersey. Accompanied by about thirty settlers come from the island of Jersey, he moves to Elizabethtown, located at the back of current Newark Bay, founded the previous year by some hundred Puritans from Long Island, at the request of Governor Richard Nicholls.

Governor of New York Richard Nicholls had thus far, assumed the leadership of this colony granted a year before by King Charles II to John Berkeley and George Carteret. New Jersey was virtually uninhabited then, only a few hundred English and Dutch settlers living on the western shore of the Hudson River. The land where Elizabethtown was to be founded had been sold on October 28th, 1664 to John Baily, Daniel Denton and Luke Watson of Jamaica, Long Island, by Indian sachems Mattano, Manmowaone abd Cowescomen.

Philip Carteret (1639-1682) - Cousin of George Carteret, he was from the Isle of Jersey. His father, Helier de Carteret, Lord of the Hougue had been in particular the attorney-general.

August, 1665 - Royal commissioners having decided not to recognize the United Colonies, the General Court of Massachusetts sends a petition to King Charles II in which it complains about threats posed to it while getting no reason to obey.

August 27, 1665 - " Ye Bare and Ye Cubb " is the first play to be played in North America. The representation takes place at Accomac, Virginia.

September 9, 1665 - the governor and General Court of Massachusetts agree to repatriate a group of five Mohawks accused of being responsible of damages.

They had been arrested in possession of weapons and imprisoned in Boston. The judgment, however, came out that they did not intend to attack the English and wished instead to live in peace with them as in the past. The Mohawks had already forbidden their people to steal crops and livestock to the settlers and the court distinguished between the Indians who lived around Boston, who dressed and cut off their hair in the English way, now considered as friends. It decided to send these men back home with provisions for the journey and a letter to hand to their chief Saggamakers and a second for the attention of Captain John Pynchon of Springfield, on the Connecticut River.

September, 1665 - Colonel George Cartwright confirms their fur trade monopoly to the Dutch merchants of New York and negotiates a trade and defence treaty with Iroquois.

September, 1665 - Governor of New York Richard Nicholls travels to Kingston (formerly Wiltwijk) where he sets up a garrison under the command of Captain Daniel Broadhead, an officer known for his brutality.

Daniel Broadhead (before 1630 - July 14, 1667) was native of Yorkshire. Loyal supporter of King Charles, he had been a member of the expedition commanded by Richard Nicholls. Captain of a grenadier company, he was appointed in 1665 commander-in-chief of the the militia forces of Kingston, what earned him the title of " Captain-General of the Esopus”.

October 2nd, 1665 - Ralph Hall and his wife Mary, from East Riding of Yorkshire, Long Island, appear before the New York Court of  Azzises. They are accused of having used witchcraft and "malicious" practices that led to the death of George Woods and child Ann Rogers.

No prosecution witness appeared and in the absence of evidence, the couple was cleared and a non-suit pronounced.
No matter of witchcraft had ever been judged in the days of the Dutch colonization. It was so far a phenomenon peculiar to New England but the province of New York, become English, did not seem to escape it any more.

John Yeamans landing in Cape Fear
October, 1665 - John Yeamans (Bristol, 1605 – Barbados, 1676) and his son William settle with 90 planters come from the Barbados at the mouth of Cap Fear, Carolina.

October 7, 1665 - Governor Richard Nicolls signs a peace treaty with the Indian chiefs of the Esopus come for the occasion to New York.

This treaty confirmed the terms of the one signed the previous year by former governor Peter Stuyvesant with the difference that in case of land transfer, the Indians kept the privilege to trade in town. This put an end to several years of repeated hostilities.
It was agreed to renew it every year in Kingston.

October, 1665 - The Assembly of Virginia prohibits the sale of arms and ammunition to Indians and decrees that their chief will have to be previously recognized by the Governor.

Since the departure of  the Dutch administration, the settlers judged that if the authorization to sell weapons to Indians was justified in the time of the Dutch presence, it was now no longer valid.

October 30, 1665 - a group of Puritans from New Haven headed by Robert Treat founds Newark by the Passaic River, New Jersey.

November 20, 1665 – Rumor has it that the ship who transported Commissioner George Cartwright towards England was captured by a Dutch privateer. He had taken with him many important original documents and the new maps of several colonies. It is feared that all this would be lost.

George Cartwright had left New England on August 1st. He brought many documents from the commission and travelled together with two French, Esprit Radisson and Des Groseillers whom he had met in Boston. These had presented him their project to settle a colony in the Hudson Bay in order to develop profitable fur trade. Cartwright had obviously been seduced and returned to England intending to find investors.

When his ship was boarded by the Dutch privateer, he hastened to throw all his papers overboard.

Late 1665, the Great Plague rages in London

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