Monday, October 24, 2016

1679 - New Hampshire becomes a Royal Colony

February 5, 1679 - John Harvey is appointed acting governor of Albemarle by the Great Council of the colony until the arrival of Seth Sothell, captured on the way by Algerian pirates and kept prisoner.

Seth Sothell (? - 1692) – A businessman or an adventurist, he found himself wealth enough to purchase the rights of Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon upon the latter’s death in 1674, and thereby become one of the proprietors of the colony of Carolina. He received then a baronetcy and a 12 000-acre land in exchange for the promise to build thirty houses to bring in at least 120 new settlers. The Lords Proprietors decided in 1678 to make him the new governor of Albemarle, thinking that the coming of a neutral person would help to end in their lasting conflict with the residents.

February 12, 1679 - King Charles II sends a letter to the authorities of Rhode Island and Connecticut asking them to take their provisions to come and submit him directly their requests for the allocation of the Narragansett land of Westerly.

This land was for many years in the center of a quarrel between Rhode Island and Connecticut. Everything started in 1644, when the Narragansett sachems had come to place themselves under the direct protection of the king. In 1662, letters patent had placed the territory within the borders of Connecticut, but one year later, the charter granted to Rhode Island attributed it the ownership. A compromise had been signed in 1665 with the royal commissioners who allowed Narragansetts to benefit the royal protection under the treaty of 1644 but King Philip’s War and the destruction of this Indian nation had left this land with the greed of suitors from Connecticut and Rhode Island.

February 19, 1679 - Robert Holden receives from the Lords Proprietors of Carolina the chief command of all the expeditions to explore the lands of the colony beyond Appalachia.

February, 1679 - John Harvey is appointed governor of Albemarle and president of the colony council.

He chose to adopt a conciliatory attitude by keeping in their position some opponents to the owners and instructing the case of Thomas Miller. The depositions taken by Robert Holden added nothing to the former charges of treason and blasphemy already pressing down on him but he was judged by the Court of Albemarle where sat in particular George Durant and Timothy Biggs. With the help of some Quakers and members of the party of the Proprietors, Miller managed, however, to flee to Virginia where despite an arrest warrant issued by Governor Henry Chicheley, he succeeded in escaping by sea.

March 16, 1679 - Governor of Massachusetts John Leverett dies in Boston at the age of 63. Simon Bradstreet is chosen to replace him in this post.

John Leverett had known how to be a man of consensus. He could be honored to have been at the time a friend of Cromwell before being knighted in 1676 by king Charles II for the way he hadbeen able to manage King Philip’s War. He did so far never give up passionately defending the charter enjoyed by Massachusetts against the will increasingly displayed by the authorities of London to make a simple royal colony.

Simon Bradstreet (1603-1697)
Governor of Massachusetts
Simon Bradstreet (Horbling (Lincolns.) 1603 – Salem (MA) 1697) – The son of the rector of Horbling parish, he attended for two years Emmanuel College, Cambridge before marrying Anne, the daughter of the Puritan leader Thomas Dudley, better known as the first New World female poet. She would give him eight children, among whom seven will survive. Bradstreet arrived in the Massachusetts Bay colony in 1630 with the Winthrop fleet and was quickly chosen for positions of responsibility, being appointed to negotiate the creation of the New England Confederation. He especially took part in the foundation of new cities and served many years as assistant to the General Court of Boston.
After Anne Dudley’s death, occurred in 1672, he married his second wife Ann Gardner, the widow of captain Joseph Gardner from Salem.

April, 1679 - William Leete is reelected governor of Connecticut.

April, 1679 - An arrest warrant is issued against Josias Fendall, elected to the provincial assembly a few months earlier, of whom the governor of Maryland fears again riot activities.

According to some sources, Fendall had made a commitment to prove that Lord Baltimore was a traitor and considered there was no reason to agree to pay his taxes. He believed, on the other hand, that it was time for people to take their destiny into their hands. Despite the searches, Fendall remained however unfound.

Rev. Increase Mather
May, 1679 - Increase Mather petitions the General Court of Boston claiming the holding of a synod to free New England "from demons who led the Lord to accomplish his judgments.

May 24, 1679 - As agreed, Oneidas turn over the prisoners that they hold to the commander of Albany.

They waited in exchange to be returned Iroquois held by the English but it did not happen. Considering themselves cheated by the Virginians, these threatened the settlers of retaliation while notifying Andros of their will not to break their alliance with New York.

May 28, 1678 - Simon Bradstreet is officially elected governor of Massachusetts.

June 3rd, 1679 - Josiah Winslow is reelected governor of Plymouth for the seventh consecutive year.

July 2nd, 1679 - Following the report presented by the Board of Trade and Plantations, King Charles II asks the governors and the Councils of Plymouth and Rhode Island to restore to William Harris his lands at Pawtuxet.

Du Lhut landing at the Mille Lacs
July 2nd, 1679 - the expedition led by the French explorer Daniel Greysolon Du Lhut (Lyons, France c. 1639 - discovers the headwaters of the Mississippi River. He plants the “Flag of France” in the Sioux village at Mille Lacs.

Du Lhut (or Du Luth) had received for mission to take up territories that he would discover on behalf of king Louis XIV.
He had left Montreal in September, 1678 for Lake Superior. After spending winter at Sault Ste Marie, he had reached the west end of the great lake where he had initiated peace talks with the Ojibwe and Sioux nations who lived in the region.

July, 1679 – Further to King Charles II’s letter, the Rhode Island assembly confirms that it’s up to it to rule Narragansett land, as well as it was already established by the royal commissioners in 1664-65, forbidding any foreign intrusion.

July 24, 1679 - New Hampshire is recognized as a royal province.

July 29, 1679 - The residents of Narragansett (Wickford) petition King Charles II to put an end to the differences of which they are the object in the administration of their city.

August 1st, 1679 - Governor of Rhode Island John Cranston writes to King Charles II to dispute the allocation to Plymouth the lands that possessed Philip in Mount Hope, considering that these traditionally fell within his province.

August, 1679 - Appointed for only 6 months, John Harvey, the governor of Albemarle dies while in office. Colonel John Jenkins is called back to succeed him. He is supported in his duties by a Council including Richard Foster, John Willoughby, Anthony Slocum and Robert Holden.

The escape of Thomas Miller had created confusion within the colony and generated quarrels between pro and anti-proprietor factions. Timothy Biggs who had helped Miller to the gateaway tried to create diversions by accusing the anti-owners of breaking the laws, threatening to refer to London. His posturing not receiving the expected response, he preferred to resign from the council and take refuge in Virginia.
Robert Holden immediately revived the proceedings against Thomas Miller and suggested to indict all those who had helped him to run off. The Council decided then to send John Culpeper to London to report the abuses committed by Miller when he was Commissioner of Customs.

Thomas Miller had certainly shown arrogance and dishonesty but Culpeper’s rebellion reflected an unrest whose origins went back to the reign of King Charles 1st. The latter had granted, at the time, a series of monopolies in order to bail out the state coffers. Yet, if these had been abolished under Cromwell, Charles II had restored them in 1660, aware of the juicy proceeds from fees that the colonies could pay to England. He needed for this purpose to have on them absolute power and that prevail the laws of the monarchy. The Lords of Trade had, as such, been instructed in 1675 to convert the colonies into genuine royal provinces.

Facing them, the settlers refused to admit that what they already considered as a threat for their freedom was more accompanied with coercive measures such as the Plantation Duty Act dated March 29, 1673 which also concerned domestic trade. And tobacco which was the only Albemarle production likely to be exported had so become the subject of a vital issue, as far as for lack of getting ships suitable for crossing the Atlantic Ocean, the planters had to transit first through Virginia before shipping it to England, and pay for this additional tax.

August 8, 1679 - The city of Boston is struck by a fire. 80 houses are destroyed as well as most warehouses and boats moored in the port.

Most houses were then made of fine cedar shingles filled with bricks or cob which made them especially vulnerable to fire.

René Robert Cavelier dela Salle
August 27, 1679 – French explorer Cavelier de La Salle reaches the Indian village of Michillimakinac, between Lake Huron and Michigan, not far from St Ignace's mission.

August 29, 1679 - The city of Boston creates its first professional fire brigade consisted of eight companies placed under Thomas Atkins's command. A specific machine is for that purpose directly ordered in England.

September 5, 1679 - Sioux and Ojibwe conclude a peace treaty on the site of the present city of Duluth (Minnesota).

Ojibwe (or Chippewa) - According to the tradition, this Algonquian speaking nation formerly connected with the coastal Waabanakiing had gradually moved westward to reach current Minnesota, where a prediction had promised it a land where "food grew over the waters". Actually, the Ojibwe had more certainly lived on the shores of Hudson Bay before gradually moving southward, pushed by the global cooling that had affected the region from the early 15th century. They occupied at the turn of the 17th the northwest part of current Michigan and had entered their first relationships with Europeans on the occasion of the arrival of Jesuit missionaries. They received thereafter the visit of French travelers who delivered them the first guns by means of which they could win a few victories over their hereditary enemies, Sioux and Fox, forcing them to abandon the upper Mississippi valley and Northern Wisconsin.

Ojibwe wigwam
The Ojibwe lived in a sedentary way in wigwams and practiced traditional fishing and hunting. For their part, the women cultivated several varieties of maize and squash, and harvested wild rice they called manoomin.
The Ojibwe had also developed a rather complex pictorial language made up of geometrical forms that they used to keep historical facts or mathematical bases on rollers made from birch bark. During their first meeting with Europeans, the Ojibwe only used cut stone to make arrowheads and spears but they also knew copper whose trade was widespread through the continent.

Sioux - So nicknamed by Jesuit Father Jean Nicollet in 1640 who, from the Ottawa word Nadouessiouak meaning "enemy". Nomads, the Sioux who lived then mainly on hunting, included three tribes having each their own dialect: Lakota (Teton), Dakota (Santee) and Nakota (Yankton). They probably lived in the Ohio Valley before moving westward and settling near the Mississippi headwaters and the Mille Lacs Lake area, Minnesota. They were, in the tradition, among the first Indians to domesticate and to ride the Spanish horses gone wild.

September, 1679 - colonels William Kendall and Southley Littleton represent Virginia during a meeting with Iroquois held by governor Edmund Andros.

September 10, 1679 - A synod is held in Boston with the aim of reforming the Church of New England whose behavior is seen immoral by many people. Increase Mather is responsible for the committee which has to work on the draft of new rules of faith as a remedy.

Increase Mather (Dorchester (MA), 1639 - Boston (MA), 1723) - the youngest son of Richard Mather, he graduated from Harvard in 1657 and gave his first sermon the following year. He traveled then to Dublin to study at Trinity College where was already his older brother. Appointed chaplain of the English garrison of Guernsey, he held this post until 1661, the date on which he refused the various positions available to him in England for fear of having to submit to religious conformity. He chose then to leave for New England and was ordained in the Church of Boston on May 27, 1664. He therefore appeared as the defender of an enlightened and elitist Puritanism, by especially opposing the Half-Way Covenant created in 1662 by Rev. Solomon Stoddard, in his view, too liberal.

September 17, 1679 - The governor of Rhode Island and his council hold their meeting in Westerly to receive the allegiance of its inhabitants. They are visited by Sunk Squaw, the daughter of the former sachem Ninigret, come to complain about the actions of certain Harmon Garrets and show, for this occasion, a letter that sent them the governor of Connecticut, William Leete.

September 18, 1679 - New Hampshire, then called Upper Plantation, is officially separated from Massachusetts to become a royal colony with Portsmouth as capital city.

Following an order signed by the king, was to be formed a government composed of a president and a 9-member council to represent the 4000 inhabitants of the colony. They had a priority to form a legislative assembly to raise taxes vote the future laws.
Massachusetts had taken control over the colony in 1641 but its inhabitants had since never stopped petitioning for their autonomy, in the name of defending the legacy of captain John Mason. And although successive royal commissioners since 1668 had all been listening to their claiming, the arguments and delaying tactics used by the Massachusetts government had until then reached to obstruct the royal decision.
Considering themselves offended, the authorities of Massachusetts sought in return to set aside this arrangement(measure) and continued to claim the territory and to dispute the borders, referring to the terms of their charter. They were supported in this by most councilmen of the new colony who, having already held offices under the puritan jurisdiction of Boston, showed little eagerness to serve this new government.

September, 1679 - John Cranston (1625-1680), the new governor of Rhode Island organizes a court at Narragansett by which he tries to make recognize the authority of his representatives on this land concurrently claimed by Connecticut.

Connecticut was not long to react and protested against this "theft" through its General Assembly. The latter ordered the inhabitants of the region to refuse any executive position that could offer them the authorities of Rhode Island.

Thomas Culpeper (1635-1689)
Governor of Virginia
September 10, 1679 - King Charles II urges the new governor Thomas Culpeper to go as soon as possible to Virginia.

It had been already two years that he was appointed governor of Virginia but thinking of being able to rule the colony from England, he eventually wanted to play hard to get. Since the death of Colonel Herbert Jeffreys, Sir Henry Chicheley was responsible for the day-to-day management as deputy governor but the distance lengthened recklessly the decision deadlines for all the problems, from the most complex to the most innocuous.

September 18, 1678 - Captain Edmund Cantwell reports to governor Edmund Andros of his surveys conducted along the Delaware. He explains that having passed the southern end of Orechton Island, he was prevented to go farther by the chiefs Matapis and Okenichan claiming they were always the owners of the area for lack of having been paid for their transfer.

October 10, 1679 - Virginia decides to prohibit the import of tobacco from Carolina on the grounds that its poor quality is detrimental to the reputation of its own production. A banning actually with no effect, Carolina tobacco continuing nevertheless to reach Virginia.

November 1, 1679 - After a trip marked by appalling weather conditions, Cavelier de La Salle reaches with his 14 men the mouth of the Miami River at the western tip of Lake Erie where he has to meet Henri de Tonti.

Tonti arrived on November 20 with other team members. He had to inform Cavelier de la Salle that he didn’t have news of the Griffon, probably lost while returning.

November 12, 1679 - Francis Romboutsis elected mayor of New York for a one -year term.

The mayoral election, traditionally held each year on October 14 of every year was exceptionally postponed because of the absence of the governor.

Thirteen establishments were allowed, under his mandate, to sell liquor while the price of a black slave reached in New York the sum of 42-£ and 10 schillings.

Francis Rombouts (Hasselt (Belgium) 1631-1691) – From middle-class, he emigrated to America in 1653 when he quickly joined he trading environment, showing a success what allowed him to purchase over the years a stone house in Heeerestraat, now Broadway. He was to hold several offices as Alderman.

December 19, 1679 - The King’s Privy Council orders to arrest the ship carrying John Culpeper on his landing at Downes, Kent.

After escaping Albemarle with the complicity of Timothy Biggs, Thomas Miller, the deposed acting governor, had succeeded to move to Virginia and take a boat to England where he had informed in his defense the Lords Proprietors of the events which had just occurred in the colony. His arguments eventually convinced the Privy Council and Culpeper found himself imprisoned in London, accused of treason.

December 7, 1679 - Edward Randolph lands in New York to take up his post as customs inspector for New England.

December, 1679 - John Coode, a Protestant settler from St Mary's county, Maryland is accused of sedition for having supported Doctor James Barree when he protested against a Catholic plot.  

John Coode appeared among the sympathizers of former governor Josias Fendall, wanted by the authorities of Maryland.

December 23, 1679 – Back from London, William Stoughton and Peter Bulkley, the agents of Massachusetts, carry a letter from the king dated July 24 which has to serve as compromise.

The king especially wanted that freedom of conscience was given to all those who served God according the rules of the Church of England and that no restriction was placed on the admission of Protestant freemen who owned a property taxed at the rate of 10 schillings. He required on the other hand that all people enjoying any privilege, or employment, swear an oath of allegiance to the crown; that all the civil or military commissions are issued in his name and that are abolished all the trade laws contrary to those of England.

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